Post-mining landscapes present unique opportunities. Where else is it possible to redesign a landscape from the very roots—beginning with the soil mix, and continuing to entirely remodel the terrain and determine its future usage? But what should it look like, this “new land”? How can this process be controlled? And what potentials does such “new land” offer to the people of the region? In 2009, the IBA-Conference “Opportunity: Post-Mining Landscapes” was concerned with these and other related themes. On the basis of examples from all over the world, the documentation of the conference demonstrates the possibilities and challenges inherent in landscapes after mining and our handling of them. Reports from Europe (France, Great Britain, Portugal, and the Czech Republic), the USA, Chile, South Africa, and China provide a comprehensive survey of current scientific theory and practice.